[Editor's Note: This summer we at BtT are featuring old but good posts for your reading enjoyment. Look out for an all new BtT in August 2014. This post originally appeared on August 12, 2008.]
This is the fourth article in a series that explores the relationship between the gospel and Baptist identity. I have previously argued that the foundational conviction of Baptist Christians is a commitment to regenerate church membership. Baptists believe that a local church is a voluntary community of individuals who have embraced the gospel and covenanted to walk together in pursuit of common gospel ends. Though most Baptists embrace the concept of the universal church, we argue that the New Testament emphasizes the local body of Christ as the primary theater in which the gospel plays out.
Closely related to our commitment to a believer’s church is our most visible theological distinctive, believer’s baptism by immersion. Like Protestants in general, most Baptists argue for two ordinances (or sacraments): baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Baptists believe that believer’s baptism by immersion visually depicts the gospel, is the public, personal owning of the gospel, and identifies a believer with the community created by the gospel in both its local and universal manifestation. Baptism is the gospel portrayed in the life of a person who has embraced Christ as Lord and Savior and is the gospel proclaimed to the church of Christ and the watching world.
New Testament Baptism
Baptists desire to align our baptismal convictions with the New Testament, so we do not believe that every practice that is called “baptism” is necessarily a biblical baptism. Although nearly every Christian group claims to practice baptism, there are four elements of a New Testament baptism:
- The proper subject of baptism is a believer, who is the only type of person who has responded in faith to the gospel
- The proper mode of baptism is immersion in the name of the Triune God, which is the only mode recorded in Scripture, a literal translation of the Greek word baptizo, and the clearest picture of the gospel
- The proper meaning of baptism is a symbolic depiction of gospel realities such as the death and burial of the old self, the resurrection unto new spiritual life, the washing away of sin, union with Christ, and public identification with the gospel community both local and universal
- The proper administrator of baptism is the community of the gospel, normally a local church, except in missionary contexts, where baptisms are often administered in the hope of constituting a local church
Defending New Testament Baptism
Because believers alone are the proper subjects of baptism, any non-Christian who has been baptized, including an infant or other young child who is unable to understand and embrace the gospel, has not received a New Testament baptism. Furthermore, to baptize a non-Christian of any kind for any reason actually undermines the very gospel that baptism is supposed to represent. This claim sometimes offends our pedobaptist (infant-baptizing) friends, but believer’s baptism preserves regenerate church membership from the threat of pre-Christian membership in a way that infant baptism cannot do because of the very nature of that practice. When a church’s methodology departs from biblical theology, we must lovingly, but prophetically, call our non-Baptist brothers and sisters in Christ back to New Testament practice.
Because immersion is the only proper mode of baptism, Christians who have been sprinkled or poured with water have not received a New Testament baptism. This includes Christians who have been sprinkled or poured after they have come to faith in Christ. When this scenario occurs, the timing may be right, but the mode is wrong. As mention above, the word baptism literally means to immerse or dip. According to Romans 6:3-5, immersion visually depicts the gospel by identifying us with Christ’s atoning death and victorious resurrection. Furthermore, full immersion is also the practice that is recorded for us in the New Testament. Baptists simply want to do what the word baptism says and be consistent with the examples we have of apostolic baptism.
Because a visual depiction of the gospel is the only proper meaning of baptism, Christians who have been baptized with a different understanding of baptism in mind have not received New Testament baptism. The most common incorrect meaning of baptism is found among groups that believe in some form of baptismal regeneration or believe that baptism is a necessary step in one’s salvation. Although many Baptists believe that baptism is a means of sanctifying grace in the life of a believer, most Baptists have historically denied the ordinance is a means of saving grace. We reject a sacerdotal understanding of baptism wherein the grace of baptism contributes to salvation. Any group that embraces such a view, even if it immerses converts, practices a form of baptism that is as alien to the New Testament understanding of baptism as sprinkling infants or immersing an unrepentant sinner.
Because a local church is normally the only proper administrator of baptism, Christians who have been baptized without any reference to a church have not received New Testament baptism. This most often occurs when a Christian is immersed by a parachurch group, a random individual (often the person who has just led the new believer to Christ), or when a believer decides to immerse himself. Every baptism recorded for us in the New Testament occurs through the ministry of a local church or, as with the case of Philip and the Ethiopian eunuch, in a missionary context intended to result in the birth of a new church. Baptism is a Christian ordinance that is administered in connection with local churches. To say it another way, baptism is a church ordinance that should not be severed from the community of the gospel.
In sum, we might say that a New Testament baptism is a one-time event and only occurs when a genuine believer is immersed, after his conversion, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as a symbolic embracing of the gospel, for the purpose of public identification with Christ and his church. There is much more we could say about baptism, and Baptists sometimes disagree among ourselves about some of the finer nuances of the ordinance, but this article should serve as a sufficient introductory understanding of what most Baptists believe about the ordinance. My next article will briefly discuss my understanding of the relationship between baptism and the Lord’s Supper, and how that relationship is related to the gospel.