Book Notice: “That His Spirit May Be Saved” by Jeremy Kimble

WIPFSTOCK_TemplateThough often passé in contemporary churches, the practice of church discipline is vital to the health and mission of the church. Jeremy Kimble, recent SEBTS PhD graduate and current Assistant Professor of Theology at Cedarville University, has published an important book that demonstrates the vitality of this oft-forgotten doctrine. In That His Spirit May Be Saved: Church Discipline as a Means to Repentance and Perseverance (Wipf & Stock, 2013), Kimble provides biblical, historical, and theological warrant for church discipline. His thesis, and the defense of it, holds significant implications for scholars and pastors alike.

In this published version of his SEBTS dissertation Kimble argues, “one purpose of church discipline is to serve as a declaration of potential eschatological judgment both to warn offenders of their need to repent, and, by implication to exhort the church members to persevere in faith” (pp. xv, 2). To argue his thesis, Kimble examines the biblical, historical, and theological evidence for such a claim. Significantly, he finds no lack of evidence for it.

The first chapter contains his assessment of “The Need for Discipline in the Church” (pp. 1–15). Anecdotal evidence of this need comes in the form of the absence of and/or fear of church discipline in many contemporary churches. Also, however, a survey of recent theological studies indicates the need for Kimble’s proposal (pp. 3–6). He then defines church discipline, eschatological judgment, and the perseverance of the saints, terms that appear again and again in his study. Significantly, he rightly points out that all humans will face eschatological judgment though not all will share the same eternal destiny (p. 9).

In chapter two, Kimble provides a “Biblical Analysis of Church Discipline” that demonstrates a biblical-theological respect for the continuity and discontinuity between the OT and NT. First, he identifies Old Testament trajectories on the subject, namely, the exile from Eden (pp. 20–24), expulsion from the camp (pp. 24–29), and ejection from the land (pp. 29–33). Key phrases like “purge the evil person from among you” in key texts (e.g. Deut 13:1–5; p. 26) illuminate God’s concern for holiness in and among his covenant people. Second, Kimble notes “the shift in discipline” present in Ezra 10:7–8 that aligns with God’s desire for repentance and restoration in his people (pp. 34–35). Kimble then explores the key NT texts (Matt 16:13–19; 18:15–20; 1 Cor 5:1–13; Gal 6:1) that build upon the trajectories set in the OT. He finds that, across the Bible,

God deals with sin in a direct and indirect manner, sometimes bringing consequences upon people himself, and at other times allowing the people of God to mete out discipline. Regardless of the means God uses, his aim is to persevere his covenant with his people, maintain holiness, deal with sin, and persevere his people in their faith (p. 61).

So Moses, Jesus, and Paul each cared about and taught “church discipline” because God cares about his people.

In chapter three, Kimble explores the historical precedent for the practice of church discipline. He finds such precedent in the life and work of Martin Luther, Balthasar Hubmaier, and Jonathan Edwards. The survey indicates the key theological and ministerial role played by real church discipline. He shows how, for example, Edwards’s understanding of “visible sainthood” stems from a tight connection between the doctrines of salvation, sanctification, and church discipline (see pp. 102–7). While these historical figures evince differences, they each held that “ecclesial discipline was a sign of eschatological judgment” (p. 110). They also, though, practiced it so that by repentance the sinner might be renewed and restored.

Chapter four contains Kimble’s “Theological Analysis of Church Discipline.” In this discussion he reiterates the connection between eschatological judgment and discipline (pp. 117–22), perseverance and discipline (pp. 123–31), and the interrelationship between all three. Helpfully, Kimble shows that such a conception is part and parcel with the church’s mission (pp. 133–35). He then addresses questions, or potential objections, to his study (pp. 135–44): does the fallibility of a church affect this view; does a different view of perseverance affect (undercut) his thesis; what sins require discipline and what sins require the cover of love; and what is the process for restoration after discipline? His answers to these questions produce a clear, concise, and convicting presentation of this vital doctrine and practice.

Kimble concludes his very important book with some practical implications. The practice of regenerate church membership, the role of pastors as stewards and shepherds, and the significance of the ordinances show the important place of church discipline. Inevitably, this chapter will aid pastors and elders as they pray through and apply church discipline. Indeed, this is the great achievement of Kimble’s book. He has produced a rigorous academic work that at the same time feeds and equips the church. That His Spirit May Be Saved will be a valuable resource for all, especially teachers and pastors, who desire to see the church spotless and unblemished before Christ (Eph 5:27).google adwrods

Theology & Culture (5): Case Studies (Augustine, Kuyper, Hubmaier, Lewis, Schaeffer, Neuhaus)

Upon arriving at Southeastern Seminary in 1996, I had little or no motivation to study church history and historical theology. I wanted to learn “the bottom line” on the major biblical and theological issues, and then get on with the business of sharing the gospel and defending the faith. My assumption was that I could learn the “bottom line” quickly, and ought do so through my personal Bible study and some books written by late 20th century evangelicals.

This assumption, however, was unhelpful. In relying exclusively on my personal Bible study and a handful of contemporary evangelical books, I was missing out on the instructive and inspiring stories of men and women of old, and the enduringly influential books that many of them wrote. I was naïve to think that I could not benefit from the theological and ministerial lessons to be learned from the universal church, lessons which can be learned by reading books written by Christians who lived in centuries past or by Christians who live “apart” from me geographically and culturally.

Since that time, I have grown to love and appreciate historical theology and global theology, and try to teach my courses in conversation with those theologians. In my recent Theology & Culture seminar, we discussed historical figures such as Balthasar Hubmaier, Augustine of Hippo, Abraham Kuyper, C. S. Lewis, Francis Schaeffer, and Richard John Neuhaus.

Augustine of Hippo

From Augustine’s City of God, we learned that the church needs to cultivate theologians who are able to speak with power and prescience to their socio-cultural contexts. On August 24, 410, the Alarics/Goths sacked Rome. The Roman intellectuals and common people scrambled to interpret this event, to make sense of it. Many of them concluded that the Roman gods were taking revenge because the Roman people had embraced Jesus Christ. Their argument was political, arguing that the Romans had abandoned their founding myth (Romulus and Remus, the Aeneid, etc.) in favor of the biblical narrative. It was also religious, arguing that the Romans had abandoned their gods in favor of Christ. Finally, it was philosophical, arguing that the Romans had departed from Platonism in favor of the Incarnation. On this backdrop, Augustine received a letter from Marcellinus, a Christian who walked in power circles in Rome, asking for help in answering the Roman narrative.

Augustine responded to Marcellinus with a 1,000 page letter. In his letter, the City of God, Augustine argued that the Roman intellectuals’ interpretation was wrong. He did so by arguing that Rome’s story was only one small story in the midst of a much larger narrative which is grounded in Christian Scripture. He argued that there are really two cities, the city of God and the city of man. Each city has a basic love-either God or idols. Each city is symbolized in the Bible by an earthly city-Jerusalem and Babylon. Each city has a telos-eternal life or eternal death. In making his argument, Augustine not only provided a powerful biblical theology, he also demonstrated that he knew the Romans’ literature, philosophy, politics, and history. He referenced their great authors with ease, quoted them favorably when possible, and showed how they fell short of Christian truth. He unmasked their political pretensions, showing that although Rome claimed to love justice, they really loved domination. He unmasked their religious pretensions, showing that their intellectuals didn’t really believe in the gods anyway. He unmasked their philosophical shortcomings, showing that Christianity outstrips Platonism.

His critique of Rome was theological, meaningful, dialogical, timely, fair, reasoned, evangelistic, and eminently learned. Our evangelical churches can learn from this; we ought to encourage our people, our pastors, and our professors to nurture in one another the desire to exegete culture as well as Scripture, to cultivate the head as well as the heart, to always be ready to give reason for the hope within and to do so in a cogent and persuasive manner as Augustine did.

Abraham Kuyper

Abraham Kuyper’s biography and his Lectures on Calvinism showed us a Christian who, like Augustine, not only critiqued culture but made culture. He was a pastor, a journalist, a newspaper founder, a professor, a university founder, a parliament member, and a Prime Minister. From these manifold and unique vantage points, Kuyper sought to work out the implications of the gospel.

Kuyper was known for several teachings that framed his views on theology and culture. The first is antithesis: he believed that there is a great battle between the kingdoms of God and the kingdom of men, and that the intellectual elite in modern society tend to encourage a swan-step conformity to a-theistic and secular ideals. The Christian community needs to resist this conformity. The second is sphere sovereignty: he believed that various spheres of human culture (arts, sciences, politics, religion, etc.) each function because of a God-given purpose, are independent of one another as spheres, but are never independent of God as Lord. Christians, therefore, ought to resist false sacred/secular dichotomies in favor of allowing the Christian worldview undergird our culture work in these spheres.

The third is the cultural mandate: Kuyper believed that God created humans as cultural beings who ought to do their culture work to God’s glory. The fourth is the significance of culture: as T. M. Moore describes Kuyper’s view, “Redeemed culture-culture used under the lordship of Christ-is most conducive to promoting the well-being of people and the glory of God, while sinful culture undermines human dignity and leads to social and moral degradation.”* It is incumbent upon the Christian community to put forth a sustained effort in cultural matters.

From Kuyper, we learn the church’s need for a comprehensive and sustained approach to its cultural context, which includes not only cultural exegesis but constructive cultural work. We learn that we should not rely exclusively or even primarily on political coercion, but rather work in a comprehensive manner to be salt and light in every sphere of culture.

Hubmaier, Lewis, Schaeffer, and Neuhaus

Because the blog format is limited, I will be concise to the extreme in mentioning that: (1) from Hubmaier, we learn the necessity of preaching the full gospel with its prophetic edge “against” our cultural context (though truly this is to be “for” our cultural context), even if we suffer greatly for doing so; (2) from Lewis, we learn the power of speaking and writing the gospel in an aesthetically attractive manner, and of doing so through many years of hard intellectual work; (3) from Schaeffer, we learn to do deep cultural exegesis, to proclaim the gospel in the context of love and community, and to do so with confidence that the Christian worldview is the only one that can make sense of the world empirically and existentially; and (4) from Neuhaus we learn ways in which the church can retain her Christian convictions while standing in the public square seeking to glorify God and promote the common good.

____________________

*T. M. Moore, Culture Matters (Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2007), 106.